‘Mixed train’ approach can lift wagonload profitability

first_imgAs Europe’s traditional trainload traffic becomes less profitable, railways are keen to exploit ways of making wagonload operations more efficient. Combining wagonload and trainload traffic in ‘mixed trains’ can be an attractive option, as Sweden’s Green Cargo has found,Joris D’Incà, Rodney Case, and Kevin FoyConsultants in Rail Planning and Optimisation at Oliver WymanCONVENTIONAL wisdom says that wagonload freight in Europe is hopelessly inefficient – and in some countries it has already vanished. Yet, in contrast to trainload business which is dominated by low-value bulk cargo, wagonload is well suited to high-value merchandise. If wagonload can be made more efficient, then profits are in prospect.Faced with increasing domestic and cross-border competition and lower margins, incumbent operators are developing an expanding array of tools to keep their market share. This is partly a response to shippers who are more willing and able to switch to the provider that offers the best service at the lowest price. One of the newest ideas is the ‘mixed train’ concept as a means of turning around loss-making and inefficient wagonload services.In the days when national railways had a monopoly, point-to-point trainload or unit train service was more economic to operate, but liberalisation has brought about a steep decline in trainload profitability. Stable and predictable, trainload flows have been subject to intense cherry picking by new entrants. As a result, prices are falling by 2% to 3% a year. In some of the more mature open access markets, trainload prices have dropped to 50% of wagonload prices measured on a €/tonne-km basis (Fig 1).In comparison, wagonload has always been more complex to operate and less cost-efficient, and discounts were often offered to customers as a ‘starter’ to move them toward eventual use of the trainload system. But with trainload under pressure, wagonload could represent a new source of profit and competitive advantage for incumbents given the right planning tools and mindset. In particular, some operators are beginning to explore a ‘mixed train’ service that could meld the economics of trainload with the greater geographic coverage and flexibility of wagonload.Using capacity wiselyThe crux of the matter is that current European rail service strategies make poor use of available capacity. Railways often run three or more parallel product services – on different trains – that take no advantage of capacity available on other services. Improving this capacity usage would increase efficiency and reduce operating costs – which could then be passed on in the form of lower rates and better service for customers. European railways purchase capacity on train paths that provide for the maximum use of both the length and weight of a train. But a recent analysis by Oliver Wyman of key European corridors found that most trains operate well below the capacity limits: trainload services are routinely only half the permitted length, while many automotive and intermodal trains are very lightly loaded.Interestingly, wagonload trains show the best usage of capacity, regularly operating at 70% of length and weight limits. Fig 2 shows the aggregate performance for all wagonload and trainload services in a typical European domestic corridor in 2007, as well as the ‘zone’ of capacity usage that rail operators should be targetting.The downside of traditional wagonload service is that moving a single wagon may involve four or five trains and two or three yards. This high switching frequency is often cited as the key reason for both the poor service and high costs of wagonload. Unfortunately, some of the ‘improvements’ that railways have made over the past 10 years to revamp wagonload networks – with a focus on cutting costs – have actually made the problem worse.Cutting the number of yards, for example, forces wagons to travel further to be sorted through fewer yards, while simply increasing train frequency to reduce the time spent at large yards does not reduce the number of connections between trains – a key source of service failures. How then can railways capitalise on the better capacity usage of wagonload, while also improving the economics of the service?A third waySome railways are starting to assess or implement techniques that combine the best of both trainload and wagonload service. Doing so requires a change in planning perspective – from train-centred to wagon-centred – and a corresponding change in marketing from selling trains and hours of transit to capacity and service levels.In simple terms, the core of the mixed train concept is to build train services in more flexible ways. Many railroads will run either a single-client trainload train or wait for enough wagons to fill a wagonload train. But a mixed train service can, for example, add wagonloads onto a part-trainload service, building a longer, heavier train and thus maximising capacity usage.Or, rather than holding wagons in a yard until enough going to the same destination accumulate to fill a train moving once or twice a week, a ‘daily block’ of wagons can be run, with additional wagons added on that are going in the same direction (but not to the same destination) to fill up the train.Most freight railways are familiar with creating large blocks in yards, but few have taken the approach of operating trains with multiple blocks to replicate the productivity and service gains of trainload operations. Yet the same gains that are achieved from running large blocks of wagons in trainload service can be achieved by using smaller blocks on mixed trains (Fig 3).Mixed-train blocking also offers advantages over hub reduction as a means of improving wagonload service. Handlings and wagon-km are reduced and train utilisation increases, driving down operating costs and improving traffic flows across the network. In one example, five trains and four handlings can be reduced to three trains and two handlings, with wagons using a shorter route and train-km reduced.Better handling of infrequent trainload traffic is another key issue that can be addressed through mixed train service. Too often, European railways respond to major customers’ service needs by creating new irregular trainload services. This puts more under-utilised trains on the network and creates a yet more complicated interface and planning/scheduling environment. Instead, infrequent trainload traffic can be converted into a daily ‘anchor block’, so creating space on the train for small blocks of wagonload traffic.Green Cargo in Sweden is an example of an operator that has developed a successful mixed train service. Green Cargo uses ‘anchor blocks’ of wagons for large customers, plus smaller wagonload blocks travelling in the same corridor, to build its mixed trains (Fig 4). As a result, Green Cargo has significantly improved utilisation of train capacity, and its wagon turnround times are among the fastest in Europe.Mats Granath, Vice-President, Planning, at Green Cargo, is a strong advocate of this methodology based on the results it has delivered. ‘We have been able to maintain our extremely important high level of service performance while reducing our costs, in part through the use of multi-block trains. Green Cargo is continuing its growth as a railway that can create attractive services, while improving its profitability, by organising client traffic in blocks less than a full train.’Green Cargo has extended the use of multi-block trains throughout the network and across commodities in its 2009 operating plan, which will enable it to accommodate projected traffic growth with the same train-km as in 2007. This success continues Green Cargo’s remarkable run of profitability, which is particularly notable for a railway dominated by wagonload operations.Key objectivesWhatever the specifics of planning, the focus of the mixed train concept is to break down traditional and outmoded ways of doing business and instead concentrate on meeting the operational objectives that are mostly likely to improve an incumbent railway’s profitability, flexibility, and strategic control – that is, reducing wagon handlings, cutting the number of trains, and increasing the stability of operations.A mixed train approach, backed by sophisticated operational planning tools, holds out the promise of better allocation of resources, while helping incumbents to refocus their commercial offers on service levels rather than product silos. This strategy can provide a predictable base of business that can enhance the potential for traffic growth and profitability, even as liberalisation continues to change the face of the European rail freight market. CAPTION: Green Cargo has developed a successful wagonload network through the use of ‘anchor blocks’ of wagons CAPTION: Fig 1. In some markets, revenue from trainload traffic is just half that of wagonload as competition increases and new entrants force down rates CAPTION: Fig 2. In many cases railways do not make good use of tonnage and length limits – in this typical European corridor in 2007, many trains do not meet the length and weight criteria of the ‘target zone’ CAPTION: Fig 3. Blocks of wagonload traffic are combined to form a single train for the long haul from a marshalling yard to two or more destinations; no shunting is needed once the train has left the yard CAPTION: Fig 4. Green Cargo in Sweden has adopted the mixed train service concept, and most mixed trains run close to the target limits for weight and train lengthlast_img read more

South African company apologises for sexist beer campaign

first_imgA South African company has apologised for the branding of its new range of craft beers, which sparked an outcry, especially among women.Vale Bru ran a marketing campaign for the beers with names such as Filthy Brunette‚ Easy Blonde‚ Raven Porra and Ripe Redhead.Easy Blonde came with the tagline: “All your friends have already had her”.After being criticised for being sexist, the company promised to remove the labels and names.The social media campaign advertised Filthy Brunette as: “When gushing and moist are used to describe something‚ then you know.”While the Raven Porra was described as, “a porter with the best head in town”. According to South Africa’s Times Live, Porra is a derogatory term for someone of Portuguese origin.Thandi Guilherme, author of the platform Craft Geek, wrote on Instagram that Vale Bru “should be absolutely ashamed of yourselves. Crass, sexist, misogynistic branding and labelling”.The Johannesburg-based company issued its first apology, which has since been deleted, on Instagram. It said: “Our attempt at making you‚ and ourselves‚ uncomfortable‚ worked. However‚ we never meant to belittle or degrade you.”“If those keyboard crusaders want to carry on‚ feel free,” it added.Ms Guilherme later wrote on her blog: “#Metoo, Rape culture and Trump’s ‘locker room’ misogyny are not funny. These are real problems that society is trying to deal with. Don’t go there.”“I understand that sex sells‚ but these names don’t hint at respectful sex,” wrote South African blogger Lucy Corne.“Maybe they should have asked themselves whether these are things that they would appreciate people saying about their little sister.”In a new apology, Vale Bru said it took “full accountability for our actions and we plan on making things right.”“We were insensitive and wrong, for which we apologise unreservedly,” it added.last_img read more

Gov’t awaiting assessment report on Coulibistrie Primary School

first_imgThe Coulibistrie Primary School was severely flooded by Tropical Storm ErikaAn environmental assessment and report on the safety of the location of the Coulibistrie Primary School is under way.The Coulibistrie Primary School was severely flooded during Tropical Storm Erika and as a result the students, teachers and principal are being accommodated at the Salisbury Primary School.The Ministry of Education had earlier announced that the Coulibistrie students were being accommodated at Salisbury temporarily so that the school could be cleaned and renovated.Member of Parliament for the Salisbury Constituency, Hector John requested an update on the progress of the renovation process from the Minister for Education and Human Resource Development, Petter Saint Jean who is back on island.“The Coulibistrie Primary School is situated in close proximity of the river bed which runs through the village of Coulibistrie and as such, an environmental assessment is required to ascertain the safety of the location prior to investing funds on renovation,” Minister Saint Jean informed. Minister Saint Jean added that the findings of the environmental assessment and engineering report will determine the completion date. “Madam Speaker the results of these assessment reports will be instructive in determining the commencement of school operations in Coulibistrie,” Mr Saint Jean indicated. EducationLocalNewsPrimary Gov’t awaiting assessment report on Coulibistrie Primary School by: Dominica Vibes News – December 15, 2015 Sharing is caring! 231 Views   no discussions Tweetcenter_img Share Share Sharelast_img read more

Tropical wave projected to bring increased rainfall this weekend

first_img Share Share Sharing is caring! 223 Views   no discussions LocalNews Tropical wave projected to bring increased rainfall this weekend by: – July 5, 2018center_img Tweet Share July 5, 2018 Atlantic at 8AM(Photo: GRAPHIC CONTRIBUTED BY NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER)A tropical wave is projected to bring an increase in rainfall across the island over the weekend and into Monday 9 July 2018, the Dominica Meteorological Service has advised.In its Weather Outlook for Dominica and the Lesser Antilles, issued at 6AM on Thursday 5 July 2018, the Met Office informed that shower activity associated with an area of low pressure and a tropical wave located in the Central Tropical Atlantic remains well organized and a tropical depression could form at any time soon.“However, upper-level conditions are forecast to become unfavorable and the system is expected to degenerate into a trough of low pressure before it approaches the Lesser Antilles by late Saturday into Sunday,” the advisory notes.“Regardless of development, this system is projected to generate an increase in cloudiness and shower activity across the Island chain, particularly from overnight Saturday into early Monday,” it adds.Meanwhile, a trough system is expected to produce occasional cloudiness and scattered showers across the island chain during the next 24 hours. Breezy and hazy conditions are expected to persist during the next 24 to 48 hours. Moderate seas are expected during the next 24 hours with waves peaking up to 7.0 feet.last_img read more

New High Power Low Noise Amplifier for the Wireless Infrastructure Market

first_imgGuerrilla RF has introduced a new high power, low noise amplifier (Power-LNA) family that offers a best-in-class union of low noise figure, OP1dB and high OIP3 for high performance linear transmit driver amplifiers and multi-stage LNAs. This device operates from 1700 MHz to 2700 MHz with a single match and can be tuned to cover 700-3800 MHz.Over the coming months, they plan to add several new parts to this family which will push the output power capability beyond 1 Watt and provide frequency coverage to 6.0 GHz to support demanding 802.11ac PA applications. Currently, the Power-LNA product family facilitates the creation of rugged, high linearity, ultra-low noise figure architectures that are essential for today’s challenging LTE system requirements.According to Research and Markets, the overall wireless network infrastructure market will witness tremendous growth over the coming years.  Growing at a compound annual growth rate of over 5 percent, the market will account for over $104 billion in annual spending by the end of 2020.About Guerrilla RF’s New Power Low Noise AmplifierThe GRF5020 Power-LNA yields outstanding OP1dB to +28.5 dBm, OIP3 values to +50 dBm and sub 1 dB noise figure (NF).  In addition to use as a PA or linear driver, it is well suited to demanding first, second or third stage LNA applications requiring high linearity, ruggedness and low NF.  With a single match, GRF5020 covers 1700 – 2700 MHz yielding outstanding RF performance over the band.  Simple matching, flexible supply voltages and adjustable bias current allow for optimum efficiency and device reuse within a design and across multiple platforms.It is housed in 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.55 mm, 16-pin plastic QFN package.last_img read more

Barroca escapes penalty after hitting Banchero groin

first_imgAlaska Aces’ Chris Banchero (center) is being assisted to the bench after taking a punch in the groin from Magnolia Hotshots’ Mark Barroca. JEROME ASCANO FOR SPIN.PH MANILA – Alaska Aces head coach Alex Compton hit back at the officiating anew in the 2018 PBA Governors’ Cup Finals as Magnolia Hotshots’ Andy Mark Barroca escaped suspension for punching Aces’ Chris Banchero in the groin in Game 4 on Wednesday.Speaking to the press after their 90-76 win, Compton did not hide his anger toward the referees who did not call a foul on Barroca, who escaped suspension for Game 5 tonight after a meeting with PBA commissioner Willie Marcial.“If we’re gonna get punched multiple times and there aren’t calls or suspensions, I’ve got a problem,” said Compton. “If you are not going to call that in the game, you are not going to have anything, punch in, as we say in my family to our kids, the male part.”“That’s literally a low blow. And I’m not happy about it one bit,” added the American mentor. “That’s dirty basketball. Call it anything else will be a lie. But I am not a liar so I called that a dirty move.” But Compton lauded his players for the composure and calmness, and for not fighting back in response to the “dirty basketball moves” thrown their way by several Magnolia players.“But I’m proud of my guys. We made a deal. You have to be willing to take a punch for our team and not throw back,” Compton said. “We have multiple players take punches and not throwing back and I’m proud to be part of that team.”Barroca came under fire after was caught by television cameras hitting Banchero in the groin while Aces import Mike Harris was taking free throws midway in the fourth quarter.Banchero was sprawled on the floor for a few minutes before being helped to the bench. Prior to the incident, Barroca and Banchero were physical with each other and were called for double technical for extra motion.“Mainit lang iyong laban,” Barroca said. “Nangyari na iyon e. Hindi naman sa (binabalewala) ko iyong insidente na iyon pero part of the game iyon e. Magkaibigan naman kami ni Chris off the court.””Pisikalan lang kami ni Chris pero sabi ni Commissioner Marcial na ’wag daw masyado. ’Di raw maganda na masyadong madiin,” he added. “Wala namang napag-usapan na suspension o fine.”/PNlast_img read more

Upcoming Pitching Matchups for the Indians Matchups This Week Against Detroit and New York

first_img Related TopicsIndiansTigersYankees CLEVELAND – The Indians will play seven games at Progressive Field before they get into the All-Star break next week, and here’s the pitching matchups for the remaining two games with the Tigers, and the four games with the New York Yankees July 5 v Detroit, 7:10PM, SportsTime Ohio/WTAM/WMMS/IRNRHP Carlos Carrasco vs. RHP Anibal Sanchez (Zimmerman on DL)July 6 v Detroit, 12:10PM, SportsTime Ohio/WTAM/IRNRHP Josh Tomlin vs. RHP Michael FulmerJuly 7 v New York-AL, 7:10PM, SportsTime Ohio/WTAM/WMMS/IRNRHP Trevor Bauer vs. RHP Ivan NovaJuly 8 v New York-AL, 7:10PM, SportsTime Ohio/WTAM/WMMS/IRNRHP Corey Kluber vs. RHP Chad GreenJuly 9 v New York-AL, 4:10PM, SportsTime Ohio/WTAM/WMMS/IRN RHP Danny Salazar vs. LHP CC SabathiaJuly 10 v New York-AL, 1:10PM, SportsTime Ohio/WTAM/WMMS/IRNRHP Carlos Carrasco vs. RHP Masahiro Tanaka Matt Loedecenter_img Matt Loede has been a part of the Cleveland Sports Media for over 21 years, with experience covering Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, the National Football League and even high school and college events. He has been a part of the Cleveland Indians coverage since the opening of Jacobs/Progressive Field in 1994, and spent two and a half years covering the team for 92.3 The Fan, and covers them daily for Associated Press Radio. You can follow Matt on Twitter HERE.last_img read more

Ducros, Ferreira Place Fifth at ITA Small College National Championships

first_imgDucros, Ferreira Place Fifth at ITA Small College National Championships Kevin Ducros (Photo by Ron Besser) MOBILE, Ala. – Kevin Ducros (Aix-en-Provence, France) and Leandro Ferreira (Sao Paulo, Brazil) of the West Florida men’s tennis team won their final two matches in the Division II doubles back draw, placing fifth at the ITA Small College National Championships in Mobile over the weekend.  The UWF duo defeated Scott Bradley and Georgie Perez of Metro State, 7-5, 6-2, in their first match, and then in the fifth place match the Argonauts defeated Diego Gimenez and Joseph Boesing of Southern Indiana, 6-4, 6-3.Ducros and Ferreira fell to top ranked Andrey Boldarev and Alex Grubin of Concordia (N.Y.), the eventual Division II doubles champions, in the first round of the national tournament 7-5, 6-4.The Argonauts will host the UWF Fall Fling this weekend at the Ralph “Skeeter” Carson Tennis Complex to close out fall season play.  For information on all UWF Athletics, visit www.GoArgos.com. ITA NATIONAL SMALL COLLEGE CHAMPIONSHIPS HOME PAGE____________________________________________________________________________________Doubles:Kevin Ducros/Leandro Ferreira (UWF) def. Scott Bradley/Georgie Perez (MS) 7-5, 6-2Kevin Ducros/Leandro Ferreira (UWF) def. Diego Gimenez/Joseph Boesing (SI) 6-4, 6-3Print Friendly Versioncenter_img Sharelast_img read more

Argos Slip Up to No. 17 Alabama-Huntsville

first_imgArgos Slip Up to No. 17 Alabama-Huntsville Share HUNTSVILLE, Ala. – The Argonauts had opportunities but couldn’t capitalize as the University of West Florida men’s basketball team took an 89-73 loss to No. 17 Alabama-Huntsville. UWF is now 11-6 on the year and drops to 2-2 in the Gulf South Conference standings.The Argos never led in the game but did have chances late to tie it up. Peter Connole (Orlando, Fla./Pine Castle Christian Academy) drilled a pair of free throws to put UWF within two points, 62-60, with over 12 minutes to go. Alabama-Huntsville (12-3, 3-1 GSC) then went on a 13-0 run over the next three minutes to put the Argos out of reach.In the opening half, West Florida had the game tied early on at 2-2 before the Chargers quickly extended their lead to eight points with 15:48 on the clock. UWF made it a one possession game five separate times during the half but failed to close the gap as UAH went into the break up, 51-43.The Chargers came out and extended their lead to 10 points before Connole’s free throws put UWF back within two.Marquis Mathis (Cincinnati, Ohio/Cincinnati State CC) had another 20 point night for head coach Bob Stinnett with Jamar Moore (Coolidge, Ga./Faulkner State CC) finishing just one rebound shy of the double-double with 12 points and nine boards.The Argos shot 47.8 percent from the field while the Chargers were 55.6 with nine three pointers. UWF did, however win the rebound category, pulling down 40 to UAH’s 24.The Argos will be back on the court this Thursday, Jan. 19, as they head to West Georgia for a 7:30 p.m. ET meeting with the Wolves. For the latest on West Florida basketball and on all UWF Athletics, visit www.GoArgos.com. Print Friendly Versioncenter_img Mike Whisman put in a solid night, scoring 13 points to go with his five rebounds (Photo by Bill Stockland). last_img read more

Emirates Jadi Maskapai Pertama Lakukan Rapid Test Corona ke Seluruh Penumpang

first_imgPenumpang yang dinyatakan negatif virus corona dan boleh melanjutkan perjalanan nantinya akan mendapatkan sertifikat sehat yang menyatakan bebas virus corona untuk dipergunakan saat masuk ke negara yang dikunjungi. Sebab, beberapa negara kini telah memberlakukan kebijakan baru perihal pandemi virus corona, di mana traveler harus menunjukkan sertifikat yang menyatakan dirinya bebas virus corona.Pada penerbangan Rabu lalu, Emirates tidak mengungkap berapa penumpang yang melakukan rapid tes corona dan bagaimana hasilnya. Namun, yang jelas, sejauh ini belum terdapat laporan penumpang yang batal berangkat bersama Emirates dalam penerbangan dengan menggunakan Boeing 777 tersebut. Itu berarti, besar kemungkinan, hasil rapid tes corona seluruh penumpang dinyatakan negatif.Mengingat pentingnya rapid tes corona, maskapai yang masuk dalam salah satu The Three Mega Carrier Timur Tengah tersebut, bersama Qatar Airways dan Etihad Airways, saat ini mengaku tengah mempertimbangkan untuk memperluas rapid tes. Bila kemarin hanya terbatas pada penerbangan ke Tunisia saja, ke depannya Emirates ingin melakukan hal serupa ke penerbangan lainnya.Tak hanya itu, melalui kepala operasionalnya, Adel Al Redha, Emirates juga tengah mempersiapkan diri untuk meningkatkan akurasi rapid tes corona. Pasalnya, saat ini, rapid tes yang dilakukan, berupa pengambilan sampel darah, hanya untuk memeriksa antibodi dan memantiknya agar bekerja sebelum virus Cina menyerang dan bukan menjadi indikator yang dapat diandalkan untuk memvonis penumpang positif atau negatif.“Kami sedang mengerjakan rencana untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pengujian di masa depan dan memperluasnya ke penerbangan lain. Kesehatan dan keselamatan staf dan penumpang di bandara tetap sangat penting,” ujar Adel Al Redha.Sementara itu, Direktur Jenderal Dubai Health Authority (DHA), HE Humaid Al Qutami, mengatakan untuk menangani COVID-19, pihaknya secara proaktif bekerja sama dengan berbagai organisasi pemerintah dan sektor kesehatan swasta.“Kami senang bekerja sama dengan Emirates untuk menyukseskan implementasi dari rapid tes COVID-19 di bandara untuk keberangkatan wisatawan,” kata Humaid Al Qutami.Baca juga: IATA: Maskapai Kehilangan Revenue dari Penumpang Sebesar 55 PersenPihaknya juga telah menerapkan semua langkah yang diperlukan, mulai dari perlindungan kesehatan masyarakat hingga penyediaan layanan kesehatan berkualitas tinggi, sesuai dengan pedoman internasional terbaru.Sebagai informasi, selain maskapai, salah satu hub internasional utama di Asia Timur, Bandara Hong Kong, juga telah melakukan rapid tes corona ke seluruh penumpang yang baru tiba mulai 9 April lalu. Sama halnya seperti Emirates, secara resmi, hal itu menjadikan Bandara Hong Kong menjadi yang pertama di dunia dalam pemeriksaan virus Corona bagi penumpang.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Like this:Like Loading… RelatedJetBlue Jadi Maskapai Besar AS Pertama yang Wajibkan Penumpang Pakai Masker29/04/2020In “Featured”Emirates Jadi Maskapai Pertama Tawarkan Asuransi Covid-19 Gratis ke Penumpang! Simak Syaratnya24/07/2020In “Featured”Etihad dan Emirates: Sampai Vaksin Corona Efektif, Penerbangan Tidak Akan Normal06/05/2020In “Destinasi” Ilustrasi rapid test. Foto: Emirates Emirates Airlines mengklaim pihaknya menjadi maskapai pertama di dunia yang melakukan rapid tes corona ke seluruh penumpang. Kepastian tersebut didapat setelah sebelumnya seluruh traveler yang terbang dari Bandara Internasional Dubai (DXB) menuju Tunisia pada, Rabu (15/4), mengikuti rapid tes yang bekerjasama dengan Otoritas Kesehatan Dubai (DHA), di terminal tiga DXB.Baca juga: Emirates Lakukan Tes Covid-19 Pada Seluruh Awak KabinSeperti dikutip dari traveller.com.au, tak perlu menunggu lama, penumpang akan langsung diberitahu hasilnya sekitar 10 menit setelah tes dilakukan. Hasil tersebut kemudian akan menjadi dasar Emirates untuk memperbolehkan penumpang melanjutkan perjalanan atau tidak. Selain rapid tes, Emirates juga mewajibkan seluruh penumpang untuk memakai masker sebelum keberangkatan dan selama di pesawat.last_img read more